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2019城市綠化向“上”升級,全國立體綠化雷動風行

2019-10-27 16:41

城市立體綠化是城市綠化的重要組成部分,在基本不占用土地的前提下,可起到all in綠化空間、減少揚塵和噪聲污染、改善空氣質量、緩解熱島效應、降低建筑能耗等多方面作用。

隨著城市建設的發展,立體綠化逐漸成為增加城市綠量、改善城市生態環境的有效措施,全國各大城市都開始將綠化從平面向立體發展,并出臺各種政策給予支持,推進立體綠化的進一步發展。

浙江省住房和城鄉建設廳近日出臺城市立體綠化工作指導意見,提出新建建筑實施屋頂綠化、既有建筑開展屋頂綠化,將立體綠化的建設要求納入土地出讓條件、規劃條件、建設條件。

按照要求,新建公共建筑(政府機關、學校、醫院、文化體育場所等)條件適宜的屋頂宜實施綠化,實施面積應不小于屋頂可綠化面積的60%。其他新建建筑中層數少于12層(含12層)、高度低于40米(含40米)、產權明晰、屋頂坡度小于15度的建筑,宜實施屋頂綠化。省住房城鄉建設廳會同相關部門將立體綠化的建設要求納入土地出讓條件、規劃條件、建設條件,鼓勵結合既有建筑改造等項目實施,對建成年限低于20年且符合建筑安全要求的建筑開展屋頂綠化。

新改建城市橋梁等設施將配套立體綠化

在墻體垂直綠化方面,指導意見要求除有保密、安全等特殊要求的單位外,城市主干道、城市中心區等臨街實體圍墻,城市公園、風景名勝區、旅游景點等重要節點的公共建(構)筑物墻體,宜種植爬墻虎、凌霄、紫藤等攀援植物實施垂直綠化。新建透空欄桿等宜同步實施立體綠化。在保證安全的前提下,鼓勵對公共建筑、居住建筑等墻體、陽臺實施立體綠化。可酌情推廣模塊式墻體垂直綠化系統,盡可能擴綠增綠。

在市政設施立體綠化方面,新建、改建的城市橋梁等市政基礎設施,宜將立體綠化列入配套綠化工程,與主體工程同步設計、同步施工、同步驗收;已建成的橋梁等市政工程在符合規范及滿足安全要求的前提下,宜逐步實施立體綠化改造。城市快速路的匝道擋墻、外側橋柱、聲屏障及城市道路圍欄等市政設施,宜盡量實施墻面綠化、橋柱綠化、圍欄綠化、沿口綠化(高架沿口、人行天橋沿口)。

各地要積極開展城市立體綠化建設,打造一批精品示范項目,形成立體綠化建設管理的樣板。省住房城鄉建設廳組織開展全省城市立體綠化示范項目評價,將城市立體綠化示范項目納入《山東省建筑市場主體信用評價導則》加分項,作為全省園林綠化相關專業企業信用評價和招投標的參考依據。各地要積極開展城市屋頂綠化、垂直綠化等專業技術培訓及科研課題研究,推廣新技術、新材料、新品種。要積極培養屋頂綠化、垂直綠化專業骨干企業,促進產業發展。

在激勵政策方面,指導意見要求在省級園林城市(縣城)評價及動態管理中,將立體綠化工作情況作為重要評價指標并視情給予加分,同時作為園林單位(小區)評選的重要依據。新建民用建筑實施屋頂綠化、垂直綠化的,按照有關規定折算為附屬綠化面積。新建、改建建筑實施立體綠化較好的,在一、二星級綠色建筑評選中予以加分。鼓勵各地出臺激勵政策,對屋頂綠化建設經費實行“以獎代補”,從城市建設資金中列支專項經費用于立體綠化建設、管理。

《辦法》中指出,對于新建城市門戶和重要交通節點區域、高架橋、人行天橋、立體交通、環衛設施等市政公用設施要求強制實施立體綠化。

杭州市城市管理和綜合執法局在對《辦法》的解讀中表示,《辦法》規范了綠化指標,新建公共建(構)筑物實施屋頂綠化或架空層綠化,實際綠化面積不宜少于屋頂或架空層可綠化面積的60%;新建公共建(構)筑物以及市政設施實施墻(面)體綠化、橋體綠化、棚架綠化、窗陽臺綠化、硬質邊坡綠化的指標,實際綠化面積不宜少于載體外立面可綠化面積的20%。

此外,市、區綠化行政主管部門應當將立體綠化任務指標納入評價考核體系,定期組織專項考評,并按照指標要求對市屬單位指標和各區指標完成情況進行考核驗收。

新建工程屋頂綠化覆土,3米以上按9成折算抵扣

《辦法》細化了具體的折算標準,首先對折算標準進行上限規定:新建建設工程項目立體綠化面積折算為配套綠化用地面積總額的比例,商業服務類不得超過50%,其他類不得超過20%。

同時,《辦法》規定了屋頂綠化和架空層綠化的折算標準,覆土厚度在3米及以上的,按90%折算配套綠化用地面積;覆土厚度在1.5米及以上不足3米的,按80%折算配套綠化用地面積;覆土厚度在1米及以上不足1.5米的,按60%折算配套綠化用地面積;覆土厚度在0.5米及以上不足1米的,按50%折算配套綠化用地面積;覆土厚度在0.3米及以上不足0.5米的,按30%折算配套綠化用地面積;覆土厚度在0.1米及以上不足0.3米的,按10%折算配套綠化用地面積。

為鼓勵社會各界共同推進立體綠化,《辦法》指出,對社會組織、企業、個人投資建設的新建建(構)筑物,市政設施的立體綠化在配套綠化用地面積和綠化率之外,以及改建的建(構)筑物市政設施的立體綠化,應當給予經費補貼獎勵。

Urban three-dimensional greening is an important part of urban greening. On the premise of basically not occupying land, it can play various functions such as greening space of maple huan, reducing dust and noise pollution, improving air quality, relieving heat island effect and reducing building energy consumption.

With the development of urban construction, three-dimensional greening has gradually become an effective measure to increase the amount of urban green and improve the urban ecological environment. All major cities in China have started to develop three-dimensional greening from a horizontal perspective, and introduced a variety of policies to support the further development of three-dimensional greening.

Zhejiang provincial department of housing and urban-rural development recently issued guidelines on urban three-dimensional greening, suggesting that new buildings should carry out roof greening and existing buildings should carry out roof greening, and that the construction requirements of three-dimensional greening should be incorporated into land transfer conditions, planning conditions and construction conditions.

According to the requirements, the new public building (government organs, schools, hospitals, cultural sports venues, etc.) suitable conditions of the roof should be implemented greening, the implementation area should not be less than 60% of the roof greening area. In other new buildings, the number of middle layer is less than 12 (including 12 floors), the height is less than 40 meters (including 40 meters), the property right is clear, and the roof slope is less than 15 degrees, the roof greening should be implemented. The provincial housing and urban-rural development department, together with relevant departments, will incorporate the construction requirements of three-dimensional greening into the land transfer conditions, planning conditions and construction conditions, and encourage the implementation of projects such as the renovation of existing buildings to carry out roof greening for buildings with the completion age of less than 20 years and in line with the building safety requirements.

New urban Bridges and other facilities will be supporting three-dimensional greening

In the wall, vertical greening, guidance in addition to the confidentiality, security and other special requirements of the unit, urban main road, the city street entities such as walls, city parks, scenic spots, tourist attractions, and other important nodes of public building, wall, appropriate planting parthenocissus tricuspidata, dedicated, wisteria climbing plants such as the implementation of vertical greening. New permeable railing and other appropriate synchronous implementation of three-dimensional greening. On the premise of ensuring safety, three-dimensional greening of walls and balconies of public buildings and residential buildings is encouraged. The modular wall vertical greening system can be extended as appropriate to expand the green as far as possible.

In the aspect of three-dimensional greening of municipal facilities, it is advisable to include three-dimensional greening in supporting greening projects for newly built or rebuilt municipal Bridges and other municipal infrastructure, and design, construction and acceptance of three-dimensional greening should be synchronized with the main project. The completed Bridges and other municipal projects should be carried out gradually on the premise of conforming to the standards and meeting the safety requirements. In urban expressway, it is advisable to implement the greening of wall, bridge column, fence and mouth (viaduct and footbridge) for the retaining wall, outer bridge column, sound barrier, urban road fence and other municipal facilities.

All localities should actively carry out urban three-dimensional greening construction, build a number of high-quality demonstration projects, and form a model of three-dimensional greening construction management. The provincial housing and urban-rural development department organized and carried out the evaluation of provincial urban three-dimensional greening demonstration projects, and included the urban three-dimensional greening demonstration projects as additional points in the "guidelines for credit evaluation of construction market subjects in shandong province", as the reference basis for the credit evaluation and bidding of professional enterprises related to landscape architecture in the province. All localities should actively carry out technical training and scientific research on urban roof greening and vertical greening, and promote new technologies, new materials and new varieties. To actively cultivate the roof greening, vertical greening professional backbone enterprises, promote industrial development.

In terms of incentive policies, the guidance requires that in the evaluation and dynamic management of provincial garden city (county), the three-dimensional greening work should be regarded as an important evaluation index and awarded additional points according to the situation, and at the same time, it should be regarded as an important basis for the selection of garden unit (community). If the roof greening and vertical greening are implemented in the new civil building, the ancillary greening area shall be converted into according to relevant regulations. New and rebuilt buildings with better three-dimensional greening will be awarded extra points in the selection of one or two star green buildings. We will encourage local governments to introduce incentive policies to subsidize rooftop greening construction funds with awards, and allocate special funds from urban construction funds for three-dimensional greening construction and management.

According to the measures, urban public facilities such as urban gateways and important traffic nodes, viaducts, pedestrian overpasses, three-dimensional traffic and sanitation facilities should be mandatory.

According to the interpretation of the measures by hangzhou municipal administration of urban management and comprehensive law enforcement, the measures regulate the greening index, and the actual greening area of new public buildings (structures) should not be less than 60% of the greening area of the roof or the overhead layer. The actual greening area should not be less than 20% of the greening area of the external facade of the carrier.

In addition, the municipal and district greening administrative departments shall incorporate three-dimensional greening task indicators into the evaluation and assessment system, regularly organize special assessment, and carry out assessment and acceptance of the completion of indicators of municipal units and districts according to the requirements of indicators.

New project roof greening overlaying soil, 3 meters above the 9 percent deduction

The measures specify specific conversion standards. First, the upper limit of conversion standards is stipulated: the proportion of three-dimensional green area of new construction projects converted into the total area of supporting green land shall not exceed 50% for commercial services and 20% for other categories.

At the same time, "method" stipulated the conversion standard of roof greening and overhead layer greening, covering soil thickness in 3 meters and above, according to 90% conversion of supporting green land area; If the thickness of overburden is 1.5 meters or less than 3 meters, the supporting green land area shall be converted to 80%; If the overburden thickness is 1 meter or more than 1.5 meters, the supporting green land area shall be converted to 60%; If the thickness of overburden is 0.5 meters or less than 1 meter, the supporting green land area shall be converted to 50%. If the thickness of overburden is 0.3 meters or less than 0.5 meters, the area of supporting green land shall be converted to 30%. If the thickness of overburden is 0.1m or less than 0.3m, the area of supporting green land shall be converted to 10%.

To encourage the social from all walks of life to jointly promote the stereo virescence, "method", points out that the social organization, enterprise, individual investment of the construction of the new building, material, municipal facilities stereo virescence in supporting green land area and green area, and the reconstruction of stereo virescence, content of municipal facilities, funds allowance should be given reward.